Thursday, July 23, 2020
Somewhere in between This semester has been weird for me. On one side I am for all intents and purposes I am a junior, a 2020. I will not be graduating until 2020, my degree will say 2020, and for the most parts my day to day classmates are 2020. On the other hand I am a senior. My oldest friends walked into MIT with me back in 2015, my brass rat says 2019, and despite not graduating this year I am still on the email list for the year I entered MIT with. So I am allowed to go to senior ball, senior week, and any other senior events that are planned for the class of 2019. My main concerns currently revolve around doing my best for the last semester that will really matter before I apply to graduate school. I am taking five classes for the first time, I am spending a lot of my free time UROPing, and now I am pushing to do well on the four finals I will have next week. However, The last few months for a majority of my best friends has been something along the lines of applying or choosing a graduate school, med school, and occasionally law school, looking for places to live in their new found location after MIT, and doing a bunch of âlastsâ here at MIT (last DT dance show, last pset, last lecture, etc). I canât help but feel a bit displaced. I am happy to see my friends finally finishing up here and successfully making it through what is undoubtedly some of the hardest four years of their life, but at the same timeâ¦. I donât want to say bye just yet. I have never regretted my decision to take a year off and study in China, but it slowly starting to hit me that this year is the âeasyâ year as far as adjusting socially. For the most part the people that I grew through MIT with are still here, and are still very foundational to what makes MIT home to me, but these last few weeks I have had to come to terms that a lot of them are going on to bigger and better thing. So when someone asks me âwhat year are you?â I often have a hard time answering. I am not graduating this year so the âcongratulations you made it,â that often comes with me saying I am a senior often feels undeserved, but saying that I am a junior makes me feel almost as if I am losing a piece of who I am. I think I personally feel as if I am a 2019, but going through the whole âI took a year to study in China, but I studied Chinese, so it really didnât contribute to me finishing my course 20 degree, so now I have a degree in Chinese, but I have to go for another year to finish my course 20 degree, so I am technically a 19 but kind of a 20â¦â¦.â Seems like a lot whenever someone asks me what year I am, so more often than not I just say I am a junior to avoid any unnecessary confusion. Now donât get me wrong over this past year I have made amazing connection and friendships in the class of 2020 as well as 2021 and 2022 (â¦.. - these donât seem like real years to me), but there is still something about looking back at my pictures from CPW and that many of those people are still a very integral part of my life. Seeing my friendâs tiny prefrosh little faces and then looking at them at senior ball grown and ready to take on the world really makes me appreciate just how far we have all come and how long we have been at the institute. Before coming to MIT I moved every 2-3 years so knowing some of these people for 4 years makes them some of the âoldestâ friends I have, and they have become some of the few people I can look to and say âhey remember when that happened?â But I am trying not be too sad in seeing them go, I mean look at my friendsâ¦. They have become amazing dancers, tattoo artists, writers, engineers, computer scientists, biologists, finance peopleâ¦ whatever thatâs called, and just people in general, and I am thankful to have been a part of their life. I am making my own road through MIT and I am happy with how my life has gone but to any 2019 that is reading this, MIT isnât going to be the same without you. I could not have asked for a better class of peers, friends, and family, I wish you all the very best in whatever avenue you have decided to go down!!!! MIT CLASS OF 2019 FROM NOW UNTIL FOREVER!!!! Here are some glow up pictures of some 19s from prefrosh/frosh to senior year, see if you can make some connections: Frosh/prefrosh Sophmores Welp they are seniors.. (I unfortunatly had to be somewhere for this senior ball pic. but look at these people amazing right!!!)
Friday, May 22, 2020
Critical Thinking Case Study Chris had just been promoted as an Executive Assistant for Pat the CEO, Chief Executive Officer, of Faith Community Hospital. Pat had given Chris her very first assignment on her first day of work as an executive assistant and that was to gather information so that Pat can present the issues to the board of directors. Faith Hospital is faced with issues that needed attention and the board of directors must be notified of the issues so that a solution can be remedy to help the hospital stay in business. Chris was to look at the different issues that Pat had informed of her during their first meet and capture only what were the essential issues for the board of directors to know. Some of the strategicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With that as the external panoramic view, let me paint the picture for you, from the inside, said Pat (Resource). This type of media coverage causes a decrease of the number of patients that the hospital serves every year. With the decrease of patient, that translates to the decrease of revenue for the hospital that affects the hospitals budget. Compare to the prior year the hospital lost 7% of the patient population. The hospital has 28% fixed cost yearly that is required to run the hospital business such as: paying the bills which most likely includes paying the employees, utilities equipment maintenance and serving the people. Some of the data shows that the hospital needs to hold steady at 7863 patients and 39,866 patient days or the hospital will need to reduce fixed cost by 15%. The fixed cost cannot be reduced so if there is decrease in the patient admittance into the hospital for service then the less income the hospital receives. That means the hospital needs decide on cutting the cost on the fixed cost just to break even to keep the hospital running. Some of the tough decisions would be to reduce the hospitals headcount. Solutions To help tackle the issues and problems, Faith hospitals board of director need to sit down and come up with ideas that will help the hospital resolve the issues. SolutionShow MoreRelatedCritical Thinking And Critical Thinking753 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaway from the normal. We begin the critical thought process of thinking outside the box. Critical thinking is the process of evaluating your decisions, providing positive or negative feedback, and researching conclusions. At the point when used correctly, it reduces the issue of complacency in how we carry on with everyday activities. Critical thinking in a personal business decision Before I started my business as being a mobile deejay, I had to make critical decisions on the type of events, sortRead MoreCritical Thinking1715 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿KENYATTA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL: HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM DEPARTMENT: TOURISM UNIT CODE: UCU 103 UNIT TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO CREATIVE AND CRITICAL THINKING GROUP MEMBERS NAMES: REG.NO. CONTACTS SIGN GEOFFREY A.G T12S/8705/2013 0728812037 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. PETER WAMBUI T12S/19590/2013 0726581625 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ROSE WACHIRA T12S/21534/2013 0717236599 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... NASSIUMA PURITY T12S/21394/2013 0702057789 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... RADHI OLANGÃ¢â¬â¢O T12S/19632/2013 0704290026 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ CHEMUTAI DAISY T12S/19632/2013 0702645207Read MoreCritical Thinking2910 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagescreate the correct and fast solution to solve our problems. One of the ways is to think critically. Thinking is a good process but thinking alone will not help us to develop our minds. That is when critical thinking may take place. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do. It helps us to buildRead MoreCritical Thinking1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespaper explores critical thinking skills and teaching them in an educational setting. Teaching critical thinking is highly debatable. Many feel as though it is not a necessary skill that needs to be learned and others feel as though it is not a skill that can be taught. In this paper I will discuss what critical thinking is and ways it can be taught in an educational setting. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Schools For many years critical thinking has been an importantRead MoreCritical Thinking3288 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesCritical Thinkers and Education A Teachers Goal Bia Mcgrue Scypion EDU372: Educational Psychology Prof. Jimletta Vareene-Thomas 2/20/2016 Critical Thinkers and Education A Teachers Goal Throughout life we are challenged and we encounter an abundance of issues or problems that we need to solve. Some problems that can be resolved effortlessly and efficiently but other obstacles may require a more critical and creative thinking to overcome. When it comes down to thinking to solve problemsRead MoreCritical Thinking975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseliminated to strengthen the authors argument?Ã¢â¬ ¨.Ã¢â¬ ¨You can also support your assignment using the critical thinking concepts from previous chapters with points on evidence, confirmation bias, the authors communication and research skills, manipulation of language, use of reason, emotion, open-mindedness vs. narrowmindedness, the three-tier model of thinking, resistance and barriers to critical thinking, etc.Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨Assignment Expectations: Your assignment should be a minimum of 500 words (this does notRead MoreCritical Thinking . Critical Thinking Is A Major Component862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Critical Thinking Critical thinking is a major component of the nursing process. Critical thinking is define as, Ã¢â¬Å"that mode of thinkingÃ¢â¬âabout any subject, content, or problemÃ¢â¬âin which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon themÃ¢â¬ (Paul and Eder, 2012). Nurses who critically think about their patients have a better chance of solving the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems quickly and successfullyRead MoreCritical Analysis On Critical Thinking1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Critical Self Reflection Essay Critical thinking has been defined as the ability to be a disciplined thinker by using clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence. Critical thinking is a skill that takes years of practice to master. In this essay I will reflect on my personal stage of critical thinking and what strengths and weaknesses I currently have. This personal reflection will include what challenges I will face to advance my critical thinking skills and what requirements a criticalRead MoreCritical Thinking : A Critical Thinker1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCritical thinking is the process of analyzing certain problematic phenomena or ideas, along with its complex dynamics, in order to theorize healthier and more productive solutions. Critical thinking juxtaposes its noun form by describing the critical thinker, in which society is constantly and heedlessly creating. This is the direct result of the systematic nourishment of societal prejudices, misogyny, and inequality, which only contrives devastati ng and life changing events in its victims livesRead MoreCritical Note On Critical Thinking1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKristen Hofner Final Assignment on Critical Thinking The key variable in determining the quality of what I learn in college is due to my thinking. My professors have played a role in my learning, with some of them helping me learn more than others, but even the best professors will be very little help to me if IÃ¢â¬â¢m deficient in the critical intellectual skills essential for learning. Over the semester I have seen significant improvement in my time management skills and reasoning and writing skills
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Rock Opera Term Paper The Development of The Rock Musical In the Late 20th Century Rock opera in its narrow definition seems to be a purely British phenomenon, possibly because at the time of its arrival England, as opposed to the United States, had not found its musical theater voice yet: while musical theater was booming in the United States from the early twentieth century onwards, England didnt develop a popular musical tradition until the late 1960s, when Andrew Lloyd Webber started to write and produce large-scale musicals for the London theaters. To provide an overview of the scope of the genre of rock opera, I will briefly discuss some of the most renowned works. It is usually the British rock bandÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pink Floyds The Wall is one of the most successful albums in rock history, topping the United States album chart for fifteen weeks in 1980 and spanning off the hit single Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2), which remained at No. 1 on the United States singles chart for four weeks. In the 1980s The Wall was made into a movie directed by Alan Parker and starring Bob Geldof in the lead role as Pink. Pink Floyd took The Wall on tour, with the most famous, if not complete performance taking place in Berlin after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. The Wall is a double album about a fictional, emotionally crippled, depressed rock star, Pink, who is unable to cope with the pressures of life and therefore builds a wall around him. The wall is obviously a metaphor for his psychological isolation, for the barr ier he creates to distance himself from his pain. As parts of his life spin out of control, the wall grows and Pink ultimately blames everyone, particularly women, for his incapability to deal with his neuroses. The origins of his deplorable state is illustrated by flashbacks in individual songs, such as Pinks childhood memories of his fathers death in World War II (Another Brick in the Wall [Part I]), his overprotective mother (Mother), the repressive school system, and his fascination with and fear of sex (Young Lust).Show MoreRelatedThe Evolution Of The 1960s Protest Song1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesactivism. More than just a vestige of the late 1960s, Mitchell continued to write protest songs long after many other artists from the 1960s had changed their lyrical content. In the Ã¢â¬Å"mellow turnÃ¢â¬ of early 1970s country rock and folk music, Mitchell represented a new environmental shift that moved away from the proto-typical antiwar songs of the 1960s. Mitchell, along with other musicians of this era, defined a shifting musical focus on songwriting and musical presentation during the early 1970as: TheRead MoreWhat Kind Of Music Is Acoustic Music?1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Guitars are the amazing instrument to play anywhere you go as it is portable to carry. Because of its popularity, nowadays we can find different kinds of guitar. One of them is Acoustic guitar. It is considered as the most important musical instrument today. The main source of sound in acoustic music is the string, which is plucked with the finger or with a plectrum. Then the sound is produced by transferring the vibration of the string to the air, as opposed to relying on electric amplificationRead MoreEvolution Of Jazz And Blues. The Music Styles Of Jazz And1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEvolution of Jazz and Blues The music styles of Jazz and Blues are both considered to be great American musical art forms (Covach, 2015). These styles are also two very important Ã¢â¬Å"rootsÃ¢â¬ of music and have evolved from the late 19th century and early 20th century to lead to the development of Rock and Roll. Jazz and Blues both originated from African-American communities when slaves were brought over to North America from Africa (Schuller, 1986). As time passed and the culture of America was constantlyRead MoreBand Music : Rock And Roll Music1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRock and Rolls Music The United States is the origin of rock and roll music. It evolved as a popular music in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s from a combination of Afro-American genres such as jazz, blues, country music, gospel music. Rock and roll music has some elements that are evident in blues and country music of 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. However, Rock music attained its status and name in 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Saxophone and Piano were the first instruments to be used in the performance of rock and roll music but were later supplementedRead MoreHow Elvis Influenced And Changed The Entertainment Industry Of Rock N Roll Era1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe entertainment industry of Rock Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ RollÃ¢â¬ the reader must first clearly define and understand the timing and age of the development of his musical career as well as the characteristics of his music. When attempting to clearly understand the implications of his influence on the era, the reader must fully comprehend his early life and the developme nt of his musical career, the type of music he portrayed to his audience, and how he revolutionized and influenced Rock Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll. These facts will beRead MoreBreaking The Limitations Of Music2045 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthe 20th century things have begun to change. Musicians are breaking away from the traditions of the past and reaching new areas of music. Technology is developing to creating new sounds and instruments can change how to be played and used. That musical styles have been developed and the compositions have altered with devices that can record and playback music in your own home without any instruments. Music has found new limits and as modernists say during all of this is that the development of musicRead MoreAn Analysis of the Prologue to Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter1278 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesentitled The Custom House, Nathaniel Hawthorne warned the reader to beware of the noxious effects of Uncle Sams gold. Although the terms for monetary compe nsation may have changed at the outset of the 21st century, the central concept that Hawthorne discussed during his 19th century manuscript is certainly valid. Commercial success and an influx of money have a negative effect on popular music that once resonated with people and contributed to larger social movements. The three primary deleteriousRead MoreThe Blues And Bebop Are Two Forms Of Jazz That Have Given1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesarrangements still have relevancy in our society today. Because of their emergence, our musical inventory has expanded greatly. This essay will review these two forms of Jazz while comparing their similarities and difference while also discussing some of the artists who were within their musical genres. Progression to the Blues The blues is a genre of jazz that developed in its earliest development. It evolved from early musical practices of African slaves in the form of Spirituals and Work songs when slavesRead MoreHip Hop And Its Influence On The Culture Essay2067 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHip hop is one of the most prominent component in life and culture today. Today, it is often affiliated as being a musical genre and style that is debatably the leading factor in music today. But hip hop is far more than that. It is a culture and a way life. It has helped form most what we know today. It has greatly influenced many ways that we choose to define ourselves. Clothing styles, all forms of art media, storytelling, and many other canvases that we typically use in our everyday life hasRead MoreThe Era Of Rock And Roll1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere are many genres and eras of music that helped shape music today. Rock and roll for example, is by far the most influential and diverse genre in the music business. The most significant era of rock and roll is The British Invasion including music by The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Who and Fleetwood Mac. These artists helped to establish The British music industry by serving as a viable center for music creativity and help make other artists achieve international success. The British Invasion
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
TyreeÃ¢â¬â¢s Child Care 2 John and Sue have been seeking a new child care facility for their eight week old baby, Tyree. Unfortunately, they have been unable to come to a decision between two of the best centers. The high point of Center A is that there are many teachers and they are always speaking to and cuddling the infants. We will write a custom essay sample on Choosing the Correct Daycare or any similar topic only for you Order Now The high point of Center B is not only is it safe and clean like Center A, it is less expensive, as well. However, upon professional evaluation of the two centers, Center A was chosen for baby Tyree. The center meets the state licensing requirements, has a nice atmosphere, is safe, clean and has plenty of amiable staff members. A safe environment and trusted caretakers are factors in building resilience in children (Bukatko, 2008). Resilience is the ability to bounce back from adversity or trauma and most children are highly resilient because they generally feel safe and protected (Bukatko, 2008). The center feels like a safe place for Tyree, with plenty of safe people to cuddle her. Center A was the more expensive of the two because it has tunnels for crawling and extra play areas. Although this was not a factor for Tyree immediately as she is only 8 weeks old and is unable to crawl at this stage in her development, babies grow quickly and those areas will come in handy soon. Important to TyreeÃ¢â¬â¢s development, is the interaction with the many child care teachers that the center employs. The teachers enjoy talking to the babies during feeding times and diaper changes. They also are always available to hold and cuddle the babies and do so often. Tyree is in the first stage of EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of psychosocial development called Trust verses Mistrust (Bukatko, 2008). During this stage, a baby must find consistency and reliability in their caretakers so that they can develop a sense of hope and trust (Bukatko, 2008). This is a very important first stage that lasts for the first year. A failure to establish connections during this stage could lead to trust and abandonment issues in adulthood. Luckily for Tyree, at this center, that will not be an issue. The center has many brightly colored objects and pictures. Bright colored toys and pictures stimulate a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s senses and help their brainÃ¢â¬â¢s develop. Cognitive development is imperative and Tyree is in the sensorimotor stage (Bukatko, 2008). She is responding to bright objects around her and soon enough, she will be grasping for those objects. The center also has safe, low shelves. This is important because as Tyree develops and her motor skills advance, she will begin to scoot and then crawl. Safety is extremely important when babies get mobile so it is important for shelves that contain toys Tyree will be interested in to be low and sturdy because during the sensorimotor stage she will have hand and eye coordination to grab whatever she wants (Bukatko, 2008). Tyree also could start using that same shelf to pull herself to stand. Finally, as TyreeÃ¢â¬â¢s motor skills develop further, she will become more visually and physically coordinated (Bukatko, 2008). The sorting and stacking toys will challenge Tyree mentally and help her learn new skills. She will begin to interact with her peers and begin to learn what is socially acceptable as she makes friendships and enters EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s second stage (Bukatko, 2008). TyreeÃ¢â¬â¢s Child Care 3 Tyree will then continue on her path of continuous development, reaching milestones, stage after stage. TyreeÃ¢â¬â¢s Child Care 4 Bukatko, D. (2008). Child and Adolescent Development. A Chronological Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. How to cite Choosing the Correct Daycare, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The year 509 BC Rome finally became a Republic and thus started the Roman empire. As Rome rose to power they went through many wars and many conflicts between the plebeians and patricians. The republic was made out of 3 groups, the consuls which were 2 men elected from the senate, the senate which was made of 300 patricians, and the assembly made from plebeians. Many years later Rome started to reject the republic when it went into a series of civil wars. 3 men form the first triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Pompeii, and Crassus. Julius Caesar became the victor. He was then rewarded dictator for life. On the date September 23, 63 BC a boy was born. He was originally Caesar's grand-nephew. This boy would later grow to a power and change Rome for good. Julius Caesar had become dictator for life. 2 years later he was assassinated by members of the senate. A young boy named Octavian, was 18 years old. Octavian was Caesar's grand-nephew but Octavian had always hoped Caesar would take him as a son. Octavian knew of everything that Caesar had done. From conquering Gaul to when he crossed the Rublican with his army, and also when he defeated his enemies and became the most powerful man in Rome. At the age of 14 Octavian had finally met his great-uncle and hero when he came back from Asia Minor and said the 3 famous words that summed up his victory, "Veni, Vidi, Vici." Latin for "I came, I saw, I conquered" In Caesar's will, Octavian's dream had finally come true. Caesar had adopted him as his son. In Caesar's will he left his money to a man named Marc Anthony. He was a powerful general at the time. He was a consul of Rome and successor to Caesar. Octavian knew he couldn't just get the money from Anthony. Octavian had no military experien ce or political experience. But he was now Julius Caesar's son. As Rome once again fell into devastation, they needed someone who could pull Rome back together and take control. This led to the second triumvirate. The three men who were running in this were Lepidus, Octavian, and Marc Anthony. After Lepidus retired from running for dictator, it left only Octavian and Marc Anthony. As Marc Anthony and Cleopatra set out to take the throne in Rome, they went to western Rome in Asia Minor to win battles. Anthony won the battle of Armenia but soon after returned to Alexandria instead of Rome. When People had wondered why he had done this Octavian said to the senate "Anthony intends to make Alexandria, instead of Rome, the capital of the Roman empire. Anthony is bewitched by Cleopatra. Has he not bestowed upon her provinces which belong to you, as Romans? Has he not deserted Octavia, his faithful wife, for that accursed female (Foster 114)?" Anthony started moving his Egyptian fleet and 200 ships toward a city called Actium. Octavian had a fleet off 40 0 ships waiting for him, and Octavian soon won the battle. Anthony had heard that Cleopatra had killed herself, and without thought he killed himself so he could be with her. Cleopatra though, wasn't dead. She came back home to visit Anthony's tomb. She then went to her own tomb and poisoned herself. Octavian now stood alone, one ruler who now controlled all of Rome and now a new Roman province, Egypt. Octavian now was ruler of Rome. Since he was Julius Caesar's adopted son, in January, 27 BC the senate changed his name from Octavian to Augustus Caesar. From this point on, Pax Romana had begun. Pax Romana is Latin for Rome in peace. Peace was finally restored in Rome, And Augustus was the imperator. Imperator later became know as emperor. Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. The first thing Augustus did to restore peace was present to Rome a new constitution. This constitution "transferred the State to the free disposal of the Senate and people ("Augustus" 370)." There were still several civil wars but definitely not as many as before. He had many military operations continuing in many frontier areas. By the year 25 BC rebellious Alpine tribes were defeated and destroyed. In
Thursday, March 19, 2020
A Wel-rounded Perspective of Jonathan Kozols Savage Inequalities This article, "Savage Inequalities", by Jonathan Kozol presents an extremely controversial issue. Educational Inequality is a familiar topic in most sociologists' and ordinary citizens' thoughts and conversations. Some people, most likely those who are subject to the effects of the inequality, are activists who are trying to boost equality for children in our educational system. Many others, however, are not directly affected by the social inequalities that so pervade out society. These people, subsequently, cannot grasp the idea that thousands of children are deprived of most, if not all, of the things that we take for granted. Jonathan Kozol traveled around the country and visited and observed schools in poor, middle-class, and rich communities. He found that many schools that don't receive substantial funding from their tax district lacked many of the essential tools and resources that most sufficiently funded schools thrive on, therefore putting many children at an enormous disad vantage.sourdough rye with walnutsKozol's article is about two very different school systems in seemingly opposite worlds, although both in the United States. First, he observed the Martin Luther King Junior High School and The Jefferson School in East St. Louis. This small, decrepit city is overwhelmed with sewage overflows that have crept into the schools shutting them down from time to time. The majority of teachers and maintenance crews have been laid off here due to a lack in funding because the city is so poor and taxes do not produce enough money to maintain the schools. Many students here are well aware of their inferior position to students living in better areas that can afford to provide a good education. Those who have class-consciousness, however, feel powerless in making changes and accept their realities. Young women become pregnant because they know that there is not much else in store for...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Leopold and Loeb- Murder Just for the Thrill of It On May 21, 1924, two brilliant, wealthy, Chicago teenagers attempted to commit the perfect crime just for the thrill of it. Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb kidnapped 14-year-old Bobby Franks, bludgeoned him to death in a rented car, and then dumped Franks body in a distant culvert. Although they thought their plan was foolproof, Leopold and Loeb made a number of mistakes that led police right to them. The subsequent trial, featuring famous attorney Clarence Darrow, made headlines and was often referred to as the trial of the century. Who Were Leopold and Loeb? Nathan Leopold was brilliant. He had an IQ of over 200 and excelled at school. By age 19, Leopold had already graduated from college and was in law school. Leopold was also fascinated with birds and was considered an accomplished ornithologist. However, despite being brilliant, Leopold was very awkward socially. Richard Loeb was also very intelligent, but not to the same caliber as Leopold. Loeb, who had been pushed and guided by a strict governess, had also been sent to college at a young age. However, once there, Loeb did not excel; instead, he gambled and drank. Unlike Leopold, Loeb was considered very attractive and had impeccable social skills. It was at college that Leopold and Loeb became close friends. Their relationship was both stormy and intimate. Leopold was obsessed with the attractive Loeb. Loeb, on the other hand, liked having a loyal companion on his risky adventures. The two teenagers, who had become both friends and lovers, soon began committing small acts of theft, vandalism, and arson. Eventually, the two decided to plan and commit the perfect crime. Planning the Murder It is debated as to whether it was Leopold or Loeb who first suggested they commit the perfect crime, but most believe it was Loeb. No matter who suggested it, both boys participated in the planning of it. The plan was simple: rent a car under an assumed name, find a wealthy victim (preferably a boy since girls were more closely watched), kill him in the car with a chisel, then dump the body in a culvert. Even though the victim was to be killed immediately, Leopold and Loeb planned on extracting a ransom from the victims family. The victims family would receive a letter instructing them to pay $10,000 in old bills, which they would later be asked to throw from a moving train. Interestingly, Leopold and Loeb spent a lot more time on figuring out how to retrieve the ransom than on who their victim was to be. After considering a number of specific people to be their victim, including their own fathers, Leopold and Loeb decided to leave the choice of victim up to chance and circumstance. The Murder On May 21, 1924, Leopold and Loeb were ready to put their plan into action. After renting a Willys-Knight automobile and covering its license plate, Leopold and Loeb needed a victim. Around 5 oclock, Leopold and Loeb spotted 14-year-old Bobby Franks, who was walking home from school. Loeb, who knew Bobby Franks because he was both a neighbor and a distant cousin, lured Franks into the car by asking Franks to discuss a new tennis racket (Franks loved to play tennis). Once Franks had climbed into the front seat of the car, the car took off. Within minutes, Franks was struck several times in the head with a chisel, dragged from the front seat into the back, and then had a cloth shoved down his throat. Lying limply on the floor of the back seat, covered with a rug, Franks died from suffocation. (It is believed that Leopold was driving and Loeb was in the back seat and was thus the actual killer, but this remains uncertain.) Dumping the Body As Franks lay dying or dead in the backseat, Leopold and Loeb drove toward a hidden culvert in the marshlands near Wolf Lake, a location known to Leopold because of his birding expeditions. On the way, Leopold and Loeb stopped twice. Once to strip Franks body of clothing and another time to buy dinner. Once it was dark, Leopold and Loeb found the culvert, shoved Franks body inside the drainage pipe and poured hydrochloric acid on Franks face and genitals to obscure the bodys identity. On their way home, Leopold and Loeb stopped to call the Franks home that night to tell the family that Bobby had been kidnapped. They also mailed the ransom letter. They thought they had committed the perfect murder. Little did they know that by the morning, Bobby Franks body had already been discovered and the police were quickly on the way to discovering his murderers. Mistakes and Arrest Despite having spent at least six months planning this perfect crime, Leopold and Loeb made a lot of mistakes. The first of which was the disposal of the body. Leopold and Loeb thought that the culvert would keep the body hidden until it had been reduced to a skeleton. However, on that dark night, Leopold and Loeb didnt realize that they had placed Franks body with the feet sticking out of the drainage pipe. The following morning, the body was discovered and quickly identified. With the body found, the police now had a location to start searching. Near the culvert, the police found a pair of glasses, which turned out to be specific enough to be traced back to Leopold. When confronted about the glasses, Leopold explained that the glasses must have fallen out of his jacket when he fell during a birding excavation. Although Leopolds explanation was plausible, the police continued to look into Leopolds whereabouts. Leopold said he had spent the day with Loeb. It didnt take long for Leopold and Loebs alibis to break down. It was discovered that Leopolds car, which they had said they had driven around all day in, had been actually been at home all day. Leopolds chauffeur had been fixing it. On May 31, just ten days after the murder, both 18-year-old Loeb and 19-year-old Leopold confessed to the murder. Leopold and Loebs Trial The young age of the victim, the brutality of the crime, the wealth of the participants, and the confessions, all made this murder front page news. With the public decidedly against the boys and an extremely large amount of evidence tying the boys to the murder, it was almost certain that Leopold and Loeb were going to receive the death penalty. Fearing for his nephews life, Loebs uncle went to famed defense attorney Clarence Darrow (who would later participate in the famous Scopes Monkey Trial) and begged him to take the case. Darrow was not asked to free the boys, for they were surely guilty; instead, Darrow was asked to save the boys lives by getting them life sentences rather than the death penalty. Darrow, a long-time advocate against the death penalty, took the case. On July 21, 1924, the trial against Leopold and Loeb began. Most people thought Darrow would plead them not guilty by reason of insanity, but in a surprising last-minute twist, Darrow had them plead guilty. With Leopold and Loeb pleading guilty, the trial would no longer require a jury because it would become a sentencing trial. Darrow believed that it would be harder for one man to live with the decision to hang Leopold and Loeb than it would be for twelve who would share the decision. The fate of Leopold and Loeb was to rest solely with Judge John R. Caverly. The prosecution had over 80 witnesses that presented the cold-blooded murder in all its gory details. The defense focused on psychology, especially the boys upbringing. On August 22, 1924, Clarence Darrow gave his final summation. It lasted approximately two hours and is considered one of the best speeches of his life. After listening to all the evidence presented and thinking carefully on the matter, Judge Caverly announced his decision on September 19, 1924. Judge Caverly sentenced Leopold and Loeb to jail for 99 years for kidnapping and for the rest of their natural lives for murder. He also recommended that they never be eligible for parole. The Deaths of Leopold and Loeb Leopold and Loeb were originally separated, but by 1931 they were again close. In 1932, Leopold and Loeb opened a school in the prison to teach other prisoners. On January 28, 1936, 30-year-old Loeb was attacked in the shower by his cellmate. He was slashed over 50 times with a straight razor and died of his wounds. Leopold stayed in prison and wrote an autobiography, Life Plus 99 Years. After spending 33 years in prison, 53-year-old Leopold was paroled in March of 1958 Ã¢â¬â¹and moved to Puerto Rico, where he married in 1961. Leopold died on August 30, 1971, from a heart attack at age 66.